TC11: Refractory Materials

TC11 discuses advanced refractory materials and worldwide industrial experience on glass melting furnaces.

The material properties and application problems are reported and analyzed.

Testing procedure and inspection methods for refractory materials will be recommended.

Planned activities for 2024

TC11 annual meeting planned on October 21st at Dusseldorf

Activities and planned actions


TC annual meeting:
Monday, 20 December 2023 – SGR Provence

All TC11 members have been invited at Saint-Gobain Research Provence center to exchange on the topics listed below and have had the opportunity to visit the SGRP laboratories facilities.
1) The Effects of High Electric Boost on Regenerator Superstructures – Trevor Wilson
Practical experience showing the positive effect of the glass phase content (>10%) on the mullite based bricks used in the regenerators crowns & walls during lower temperatures operation.

2) Material selection for next generation combustion – Ide Tomoyuki
Development of a higher durability ab Al2O3 electrocast containing 70% a-Al2O3 with improved spalling & creep resistance for the oxy fired furnaces crowns.

3) The effect of refractory quality on glass defects: Testing and sampling of refractories – Izmirlioglu Burak
Overview of the refractories tests including the normalised tests (CCS- Creep…) but also the new characterisation perspectives (Resonant Frequency Damping Analyser & Raman spectroscopy) for an optimised refractories selection in the glass furnaces.

4) Bottom structure proposals to increase the thermal cycles resistance – Jean-Pierre Meynckens
AZS pavings have been monitored by GPR after the furnace campaigns. The disappearance of the pavings at the lower temperatures areas can be explained by the thermal variations and the subsequent post expansion of the AZS pavings due to the thermal hysteresis of the ZrO2 transformation. Some design improvements are suggested to overcome this problem.

5) Bottom Lining Considerations – Daniela Messina
Description of the paving types (electrocast & bonded) for use in the highly boosted furnaces. Discussions about glass corrosion, metal drop drilling resistance, electrical resistivity (measured @ RHIM Leoben), thermal expansion stability. Effect of the monolithic layers and the lower layers is evaluated in regards with the heat loss and the bottom lining durability.

6) Bottom Paving Corrosion in Hybrid & High e-Boosting Furnaces – Stephane Schaller & Michel Gaubil
Description of the 3 main types of corrosion (direct – upward & downward drilling) and bottom paving reinforcement proposals according to the furnace solicitation (standard, hybrid or high boosting). Benefits of double paving solution are detailed case by case for higher resistance.

7) Discussion about Liaison ICG TC 11 – Refractories with ISO/TC33 – Jean-Pierre Meynckens
TC11 Chair has been contacted by ISO/TC33 involved in the refractories standards publication. The first objective of the liaison is to be a platform formalizing somehow the exchange of information between the two bodies. Example of interest is the quartz evaluation in silica bricks that has been evaluated by TC11 in 2021-2022 (in the frame of RRT for silica) and that is to date a topic under development of ISO/TC33. Depending upon the willingness of TC11 members we might activate this liaison.

September 2022 in Düsseldorf, Germany:
October 2020 in Düsseldorf, Germany
October 2019 in Venice, Italy
October 2018 in Düsseldorf, Germany
October 2017 in Istanbul, Turkey
September 2016 in Düsseldorf, Germany.
October 2015 in Eindhoven, Holland.
October 2014 in Düsseldorf, Germany.



– Crowns deformation during furnace lifetime: Jean-Pierre Meynckens
– Crowns design & material choices: Stefan Postrach/Daniela Messina
– Several approaches regarding creep (laboratories tests & long term prediction) :Christian Kunert
– Refractories for a Decarbonised World: Trevor Wilson (invited speaker)
– Hydrogen combustion and risk for superstructure refractories: Christian Kunert
– How high electrical boosting will affect glass furnaces’ refractory material : Michel Gaubil
– Float Bath Bottom Block problems (delamination, flaking, and bottom bubble generation): Melih Ustun
– Tin Bath Bottom Blocks_RHIM solutions: Andrea Roncaglia (invited speaker)


Evaluation of silica testing methods:
– Presentation: Stefano Cappuzzo, Stefano Sanchetti (SSV)
– Presentation: Andrea Roncaglia (AGC)
– Presentation: Anne Jans Faber, Marco van Kersbergen (Celsian)

Worked out a silica RRT program:
– All members

-Presentation: Refractory mixes for glass industry, Mark Taylor, Santiago Suarez (Magneco/Metrel)

Silica stone

Michael Dunkl, Ken Watanabe and Jean-Pierre Meynckens:
Non-destructive measurement of refractory materials and measurement of the residual wall thickness:

Measurement with Ground Penetration Radar for AZS side wall

Rongxing Bei and Burak Izmirlioglu: Problems in regenerators of glass melting


Sven-Roger Kahl (Ardagh Glass): The new requirements for refractories for multi-fuel hybrid furnaces

Bruno Malphettes (SEFPRO):  superstructure corrosion

Rongxing Bei (RHI): Overview of all possible refractories for crown and superstructure

Burak Izmirlioglu (Sisecam): The crown and superstructure refractories and glass defects

Simone Tiozzo (Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro): The glass defects from crown and superstructure

Esref Aydin (Ex TC11 Chairman): Catscratches and Cords

AnneJans Faber (Celsian): Methods and tools to study crown corrosion and heat losses of refractory walls



Rongxing Bei: DURITAL AZ58 and DURITAL K99 EXTRA for the Superstructure of Glass Melting Furnaces.

Johannes Vetter: Thermochemical Regenerator – High Efficiency Heat Recovery for Oxy-Fired Glass Furnaces.

Anne Jans Faber: Project proposal – Reducing structural heat losses at glass Furnaces.

Anne Jans Faber: New CelSian CO+ sensor for burner control.

Marvin: The production at Ling Nan refractories, China and the quality control.

V2Oin waste gas (kg/ton glass)

Heavy corrosion by pet coke firing


Jean-Pierre Meynckens: Effect of pet coke on refractories in glass furnace.

Michel Gaubil: Diverse industrial experience in glass furnace using pet coke.

Rongxing Bei: Regenerator Lining Concept under Pet-Coke Firing.

Stef Lessmann: Experimental device to test the refractories for regenerators.


Evaluation of different test methods for blistering
– Roland Heidrich (REFEL, Italy)
– Brian Harris (NSG, UK)
– Christian Kunert (Schott, Germany)
– Kenji Matano (AGCC, Japan)

Evaluation of different test methods for corrosion of silica bricks
– Brian Harris (NSG, UK)
– Burak İzmirlioğlu (ŞİŞECAM, Turkey)
– Christian Kunert (Schott, Germany)
– Rongxing Bei (RHI Magnesita, Germany)

Non-destructive measurement of refractory materials (radar, Ultrasonic..)
– Roland Heidrich (REFEL, Italy)
– Bernhard Fleischmann (HVG, Germany)
– Jean-Pierre Meynckens (AGC, Belgium)


Amul Gupta and Michael Dunkl: Bubble formation by AZS-refractories during startup of glass melting furnace.
Kevin Selkregg: Glass defect in glass melting tanks by AZS-refractories.
Burak Izmirlioglu: Refractories, Glass Defects and Post Mortem Works:

Next steps:

– Influence factors for blistering: study on impurities, oxidation stage of the fused cast materials
– Evaluation of new test methods for refractory materials

Committee Members

Meynckens, Jean-Pierre (AGC) Committee Position: Chair
Gaubil, Michel Committee Position: Vice Chair

Bogaerts, Michel (AGC)
Harris, Brian (NSG)
Heidrich, Roland (REFEL)
Ide, Tomoyuki Japan
Izmirlioglu, Burak (SISECAM)
Kunert, Christian (SCHOTT)
Messina, Daniela (RHIMagnesita)
Postrach, Stefan (RHIMagnesita)
Schmidt, Anne Germany
Tojo, Shin (NEG)
van Kersbergen, Marco (CELSIAN)
Wilson, Trevor (DSF)

Committee Contact Details

Jean-Pierre Meynckens
AGC – Refractories Development & Coordination
Rue Louis Blériot, 12
6041 Gosselies – Belgium

Members Downloads

Download Manager

TC11 meeting at Düsseldorf

Crowns deformation during the
furnace lifetime

The driving force of the refractory industry

Creep of melter crowns

Refractories for a
Decarbonised World

First results of glass melting
with H2-firing

How high electrical boosting will affect glass furnaces’ refactory materials

Tin Bath Blocks & Assessment Studies

Tin Bath Bottom Blocks RHI Magnesita solutions

Non destructive tests for Refractories

Radar testing of fused cast refractory

NDT of Refractories

Applied Performance Tests and Characterization of Silica Refractories for Accurate Selection in Designing Glass Furnaces

Na vapour resistance testing of silica refractory

Silica Corrosion – mechanisms and test methods

Evaluation of different test methods for blistering

SCHOTT-tests for bubbles on refractories

Experiences with the crucible blister test

Refractory blister potential

TC11 October 2018 in Dusseldorf