TC05: Nuclear and Hazardous Waste Vitrification

TC05 is concerned with Nuclear and Hazardous Waste Vitrification. The vision and mission of the committee are as follows: 1) to establish a forum to present, discuss and disseminate technical information on waste glass chemistry, vitrification processes, vitrification melter technologies, and waste glass environmental performance. 2) to facilitate the dissemination of technical information through promoting programming at technical conferences, conducting technical workshops and facilitating publication of information through established channels. Promoting the exchange of technical data is also a goal of this committee.

Activities in 2019

The TC05 hosted numerous sessions and workshops for the purpose of engaging others in waste vitrification and dissemination of relevant technical information.  To achieve this purpose, the committee members organized a variety of events.

Waste vitrification symposia were hosted by committee members.  The first, “Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste” at MRS, was organized by Prof. Michael Ojovan, held from October 21 – 24, 2019 in Vienna (Austria).  The second, happening from October 27–November 1 in Okinawa (Japan), was organized by Dr. Kevin Fox and Prof. Russell Hand for ceramic materials for nuclear energy at the 13th Pacific Rim Conference of Ceramics Societies (PACRIM13).  The symposium included six invited presentations, 12 contributed presentations, and 10 posters from participants representing France, Japan, Korea, UK, Ukraine, and the USA. The last was hosted at the 25th International Congress on Glass (ICG2019), held June 9-14, 2019, in Boston, MA (USA). The session, organized by Dr. Olivier Pinet, Prof. Ashutosh Goel, and Prof. Kai Xu, included 60 oral presentations and over 10 poster presentations.

In addition to technical sessions, two educational courses were hosted. The first was organized by Dr. Olivier Pinet at the 11th ICG Montpellier Summer School, held July 8-12, 2019, in Montpellier, France, including eight waste vitrification lectures covering topics including glass formulation, glass property modeling, glass melting, and chemical durability, and others. The other was provided at the Joint ICTP-IAEA International School on Nuclear Waste Vitrification in Trieste, Italy from September 23-27, 2019.  This event, organized by Prof. Michael Ojovan, included 27 invited lectures on technological approaches of nuclear waste vitrification, glass formulation, glass corrosion and radiation damage effects in glass.  17 participant talks from a variety of countries including Great Britain, France, the United States, Italy, China, Ukraine, Croatia, Iran, and others, were presented.

Additionally, an educational engagement was completed by Prof. Ashutosh Goel who delivered a talk on the “Challenges with vitrification of Hanford HLW” at Wuhan University of Technology, China during October 2019.  Prof. Kai Xu hosted the presentation.

Many publications were generated by scientists and researchers in the waste vitrification area, but one collection in particular is mentioned here.  A virtual special issue (VSI) entitled “Vitrification and geopolymerization of industrial wastes” was published in Materials Letters and guest edited by TC05 members J. Ma. Rincon (Spain), Aldo R. Boccaccini (Germany) and Manuel Jordán (Spain). This VSI originated from the TC05 sponsored scientific meeting focused on industrial wastes and their vitrification, which was held at University ‘‘Miguel Hernández” in 2017.


TC05 (waste vitrification) members intend to continue to be very active in 2020 by organizing sessions in different major meetings as well as establishing a LinkedIn page to facilitate discussions and the exchange of knowledge between members and others.

In March 2020, a few TC05 members will convene for a brief meeting at the WM2020 International Symposium on Waste Management in Phoenix, AZ (USA).  Work will be presented involving nuclear glass corrosion, refractory crucibles, and waste form development.

TC05 activities will be represented in at least two symposia at The Glass and Optical Materials Division Meeting in New Orleans, LA (USA) from May 17-21, 2020.  One being Glass and Water: Degradation of Amorphous Materials with a session for Glass-Water Interactions for Long-Term Durability [Organizer: Dr. Stéphane Gin (CEA)]. The other symposium being Glass Technology and Cross-Cutting Topics with a session covering Materials for Waste Immobilization [TC05 organizers: Dr. Charmayne Lonergan (PNNL) and Dr. John Vienna (PNNL)].

A one or two days joint international workshop on Glass is expected to be organized. The organizers will include Dr. Joe Ryan (PNNL) and Dr. Stéphane Gin (CEA). The meeting is made of talks and discussions. It is a perfect place to submit new ideas, share unpublished results, and propose collaborative work.  The last meeting was in Boston, MA (USA) at the 25th ICG meeting, hosted jointly with GOMD from June 14-15, 2019, held on the MIT campus.  Over 20 people attended the meeting.

Two ICG summer schools are planned, one in Montpellier, France from July 6-10, 2020 and the other a winter school November 1-6, 2020 in Wuhan, China.  Other educational opportunities will be conducted as TC05 member Prof. Michael Ojovan is also organizing the ICTP-IAEA International School on Radioactive Waste Cementation on 19-23 October 2020 in Italy (

Lastly, the 2nd workshop in the series of Symposium VitroGeowastes: Vitrification, Geopolymerization, Wastes Management and Circular Economy is planned for November 15-18, 2020 at the University of Jaén (Jaén, Spain)  The first Vitrogeowaste congress, held in 2017 in Elche (Spain), brought together the waste vitrification community with those working on the recycling of non-nuclear waste and cement.

Additionally, the 2nd meeting on nuclear waste glasses and related materials jointed with the 12th International Conference on Advances in Fusion and Processing of Glass was organized by Prof. T. Yano for December 7, 2020, in Tokyo, Japan.

Activities in 2018

The primary objective for 2018 was to organize and conduct technical programming to continue to further TC05’s mission to facilitate the dissemination of technical information.

Several events were organized by TC05 members for this purpose.

TC05 waste vitrification sessions were organized at two major congress on glass in 2018. One session was at ESG PNCS Congress in Saint-Malo (France) in July 2018 including 16 oral presentations. One other session was at ICG Congress – Yokohama (Japan) in September 2018 including 34 presentations and 16 posters. On this occasion, Dr Jim Marra, who have promoted TC05 activities as TC05 chair for years has received the Turner award 2018.

The 4th ICG Wuhan Winter School on glass (China) was the opportunity to offer for the first time a session dedicated to TC05 activities. Under the leadership of Pr. K. Xu from Wuhan University of Technology, two days of the week were fully devoted to courses on glasses for hazardous waste immobilization, to echo the importance of the nuclear industry and other significant areas of waste disposal. Attention was given to glass formulation and structure, long-term corrosion behaviour, as well as melting technologies for nuclear waste glasses (11 lectures). More than 30 young researchers attended this session.



TC05 members intend to continue to be very active in 2019 by organizing sessions in different major congress:

PACRIM Okinawa (Japan) on October 27th to 31st – TC05 activities will be represented in a symposium including research on ceramic for nuclear application with a focus time on waste vitrification – TC05 organizer: Dr K. Fox– Symposium cosponsored by GOMD.

25th International Congress on Glass will be co-located with the American Ceramic Society Glass and Optical Materials Division in Boston (USA) on June 9th to 14th June. TC05 session will be organized by Pr A. Goel and Pr. K. Xu

A one or two days concomitant international workshop on Glass will be organized in conjunction with the 25th International Congress on Glass. The organizers are Dr Joe Ryan (PNNL) and Dr Stéphane Gin (CEA). The meeting is made of talks and discussion. It is a very good place to submit new ideas, share unpublished results, and propose collaborative work… Last meeting was in San Antonio, in May 2018, in conjunction with GOMD. Approximately 40 people attended the meeting.

Special session on waste vitrification at ICG Summer school in Montpellier (France) – July 2019 – organized by Dr O. Pinet

MRS Symposium on Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste October 21st to 24th in Vienna (Austria) – organized by Pr M. Ojovan

« Vitrification school AIEA » – Trieste (Italy) from 27th to 31st September– organized by Pr. M. Ojovan and Dr S. Peuget

Vitrogeowaste n°2 is projected in Spain organized by Pr Jesus Maria Rincon in 2019 or in Bulgaria 2020 organized by Pr A. Karamanov. The first Vitrogeowaste congress that was held in 2017 in Elche (Spain) was the opportunity to bring together the scientific communities on the vitrification of waste with those working on the recycling of non-nuclear waste and cement.

Activities in 2017

As noted, a primary objective for 2017 was to organize and conduct technical programming in the field of waste vitrification.

PACRIM was the opportunity to about 50 presentations dealing with  Glasses and Ceramics for Nuclear and Hazardous Waste Treatment in Symposium 30. Russel Hand take part to the organization of this session.

See program:

Vitrogeowaste congress was held from 13 to 14 September 2017 in Elche Spain. Organized by Jesus M.  Rincon, this was the opportunity to bring together the scientific communities on the vitrification of waste with those working on the recycling of non-nuclear waste and cement. About 50 posters was presented included 30 on geopolymers. A. Boccaccini has proposed to edit a special issue of Material letters to publish results presented on the posters. A TC05 meeting was held at this occasion. Main ideas that merit to be discussed is to gather the two communities should be renewed- each 2 years – Spanish scientific community could lead to the organization of such an event.

see program :

The Joint IAEA-ICTP Workshop on fundamentals of glass transition and vitrification technologies held in November  in Trieste-Miramare (Italy) 6 – 10 November 2017 where M. Ojovan has jointly acted with Russell Hand as co-directors. The proceedings of workshop are available on ICTP web-site:

TC05 conference for 2016 and next year –general considerations

It is suggested to identify at least two conferences per year including a session focus on Nuclear and hazardous Waste Vitrification. Ideally one per continent is a good objective.

The interest is to create a focus on these conferences to create well attended sessions on TC05 activities and good exchange between experts. These conferences are a good opportunity to gather the present TC05 members in a specific meeting. The attendance of TC05 meeting can be extended to designated representatives of missing TC05 members or invited experts. The objective of these meetings is to share information about congress and international initiative in the field of waste glass. It is expected that thanks to a good network this information will be widespread in the institutions concerned by these subjects. It would be nice if a volunteer TC05 member who is present at the conference can support the organization of the meeting and write short minutes.

Conference including session dealing with TC05 activities in 2016

5- 8 september 2016 ESG-SGT conference – Sheffield :

The conference had about 400 attendees.  There were 6 sessions. One session was organized by TC05.  In the TC05 sessions, there were about 50 oral presentations and 10 posters.  The sessions were very well attended with generally over 50 attendees at TC05 sessions.

23 – 27 October 2016 – MS&T 2016 Salt Lake City

27 November – 2 December 2016 – MRS Fall Meeting Boston

Upcoming conference including possible session dealing with TC05 activities in 2017

21-26 May 2017 -12th Pacific Rim Conference on Ceramic and Glass Technology (PACRIM 12), including Glass & Optical Materials Division Meeting (GOMD 2017), Hawaï – Russel Hand will organize a TC05 session

10-13th September 2017 – 12th International Symposium on Crystallization in Glasses and Liquids  in Segovia, Spain

2-6th July 2017 -Conference of European ceramic Society, Istanbul, Turkey

Upcoming conference including session dealing with TC05 activities in 2018

ESG Conference -Saint-Malo France

ICG Conference – Yokohama, Japan

TC05 sessions are planned for these two conferences.

2015 Report

A primary objective for 2015 was to organize and conduct technical programming at the ACerS GOMD/DGG conference in Miami and PACRIM 11 in Jeju Island.

At the ACerS GOMD/DGG conference, there were 8 sessions organized and sponsored by TC05.  In the 8 sessions, there were 46 oral presentations (1 withdrawn) and 7 posters.  The sessions were very well attended with over 75 attendees at several of the sessions.  At the conference, there was also an international workshop on corrosion of waste glasses that was supported by TC05. At the GOMD/DGG conference TC05 member Bill Ebert presented a paper discussing a round robin study of the Product Consistency Test (PCT) procedure sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. Four of the five institutions supporting the study were associated with TC05. A two days international glass corrosion workshop was held following the ACerS GOMD/DGG conference. 30 participants took part in this workshop dealing with fundamental understanding of nuclear waste corrosion over geological time scales. As part of this international collaboration over 20 institutions across the world are currently performing corrosion tests with the International Simple Glass (ISG) promoted by TCO5 members. The ISG is a six component glass designed to simplify waste glass compositions and provide a standard glass for international testing. SRNL (a TCO5 representative institution) acts as custodian of the ISG and distributes to institutions. A journal article is planned to summarize testing with the ISG.

At the PacRim conference 15 oral presentations and 5 posters dealing with TC05 activities were presented. Six countries were represented by speakers in these sessions.

The proceedings from the “2nd international summer school on nuclear glass waste form: Structure, Properties and Long-Term Behavior (SumGLASS 2013)” held in Vers-Pont-du-Gard, France from 23 – 27 September 2013 was published in 2015. Procedia Materials Science Volume 7. It includes about forty articles several of which were authored by TC05 members.

After 9 years spent as chairman of the TC05, Jim Marra turned over chairmanship to Olivier Pinet at the end of September 2015. Beyond his kindness, we recognize the work he performed to link the scientific community in the field of waste vitrification.


The primary objective for 2015 will be to organize and conduct technical programming to continue to further TC05’s mission to facilitate the dissemination of technical information. Due to continued travel restrictions for most TC05 members, it was determined that conducting programming at least two meetings located in two different continents would provide the most benefit to TC05 members and the technical community at large.

Therefore, TC05 is planning to organize a TC05 session at Glass and Optical Materials Division Meeting (GOMD) in Madison, WI USA from 22 to 26 of May. It was agreed that programming should continue to be aligned with the international glass corrosion workshop since this results in strong attendance and presentations. Dialog with Joe Ryan, PNNL, (lead organizer for the international corrosion workshops) will continue to coordinate TC05 programming with the corrosion workshop. A TC05 session will be organized at ESG/SGT meeting that will be held at the University of Sheffield from 5 to 9 September. This event marks the Society of Glass Technology’s centenary anniversary, which will be held alongside the European Society of Glass’s annual conference.

Other opportunities for meetings on nuclear and hazardous waste vitrification will be:

  • The MRS meeting in December 2016 in Boston, MA USA.The MRS meeting will commemorate the 40th anniversary of the “Scientific Basis for Radioactive Nuclear Waste Management” symposium series.
  • MS&T Conference in October 2016 in Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

In 2016, TC05 will also work to update and provide new information on the website in an effort to improve communications and promote TC05 activities.

Liquidus temperature (TL) round-robin study

Eight institutions from four countries participated in a round-robin study to determine the precision and bias of a liquidus temperature (TL) procedure for waste glasses being adopted by ASTM International as ASTM C 1720-11. In this study, three separate TL measurement methods were employed: a gradient temperature (GT) method, a uniform temperature (UT) method, and a crystal fraction extrapolation (CF) method. The TL was measured for three glasses of complex formulations based on borosilicates. The temperature ranges of reported TL values for the primary crystalline phases (spinel, zircon, and rare-earth borosilicate) were sufficiently narrow and consistent between the various methods used to consider the standard deviation of a TL measurement as ±9.5°C to 16°C, ±7°C to 8°C, and ±8°C to 13°C for the GT, UT, and CF methods, respectively.

Committee Members

Bingham, Paul
Boccaccini, Aldo
Didier Laurent, R.
Ebert, W.
Fox, K Committee Position: Core Group
Goel, Ashutosh (Prof) Committee Position: Chair
Hand, Russell
Harrison, M.
Inagaki, Y
Karamanov, Alexander Committee Position: Core Group
Kim, C.
Kovacova, Milota
Leonelli, C.
Lonergan, Charmayne Committee Position: Vice Chair
Marra, James Committee Position: Core Group
Monteiro, R.
Ojovan, M.
Peeler, D. K. Committee Position: Secretary
Pegg, I
Perez Villarejo, L
Pokorny, Richard Committee Position: Core Group
Regnier, E
Rincon, J. Committee Position: Core Group
Stefanovsky, Serge
Veyer, C.
Vienna, J.
Xu, Kai Committee Position: Vice Chair
Yano, T Committee Position: Core Group

Committee Contact Details

TC05: Waste Vitrification
Department of Materials Science and Engineering,
Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey, USA

Tel: +1 848 445 4512